Wpisy

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Guardians: Grzegorz Krzyżaniak

A Great Lithuanian Hetman. One of the most outstanding European army commanders within early seventeenth century.

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When he discomfited Swedes near Kircholm in 1605, he received congratuliations from the emperor Rudolf II, the king of England Jakub I, and even the shah of Persia. The Ottoman sultan and Tuscan dukes had his portraits at their palaces. The pope Paul V wrote to the victor: “You proved to be the most glorious and the wisest commander absolutely”.

He gained the eternal glory during his battles with Swedes in Livonia. Kircholm, where the hetman defeated three times more numerous enemy’s army, entered the pantheon of Polish greatest triumphs. You can find it also in the list of battles immortalised at the Unknown Soldier Grave in Warsaw.

Importance of Polish Hussars in this battle is reasonably emphasized but it was not conclusive in the least. Jan Karol Chodkiewich’s genius decided substantially on the conflict result.

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You can find the whole article and other sources at Polish Digital Equestrian Library (click)

Author: Michael Morys Twarowski

Click the following links to go to related materials in Polish Digital Equestrian Library (they will open in a new page):

„Wodzowie Polski – Jan Karol Chodkiewicz” (1938) – Edmund Oppman

„Jan Karol Chodkiewicz – Polscy Bogowie Wojny” (2019) – Michael Morys Twarowski

Chocim 1621 | FILM

„Chocim 1621” (1988) – Leszek Podhorodecki

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Polish-Lithuanian-Cossack forces crossed Ottoman Army’s path near the town Chocim. The siege ended with a tactical victory of the army of Republic of Poland.
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The Chocim war was the greatest defensive operation in the history of Republic of Poland; it was the greatest position warfare (…).

Chodkiewicz and his staff used natural obstacles in their defence system skilfully. They coupled forces of infantry and artillery fire with field fortifications and surprised the enemy repeatedly.

Chodkiewicz, the creator of the victorious strategy and Commander-in Chief, did not live to see the end of the siege. On 23rd September, while moribund, he handed the mace to the regimentarz (commander-General) Stanisław Lubomirski and folded his hands in prayer. He could whisper only: In manus tuas Domine.

He died on the next day.

His subordinates fought off two onslaughts more; then Ottomans decided to talk and the talks ended with a peace accord on 9th October. The defeated sultan moved on south and his conqueror – in a coffin – was taken to Kamieniec Podolski.

You can find the whole article and other sources at Polish Digital Equestrian Library (click)

Author: Michael Morys Twarowski

sources:
– „Polscy Bogowie Wojny” (Polish Gods of War) (2019) [fragments] – Editorial staff, ZNAK Publishing House (Honorary Patron PLPJ).
– „Chocim 1621” (1988) – Leszek Podhorodecki, Ministry of Defence’s Publishing House (at present, the rights belong to the Honorary Patron PCBJ), Bellona Publishing House).

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Chocim 1621 | FILM

„Chocim 1621” (1988) – Leszek Podhorodecki

„Jan Karol Chodkiewicz – Polscy Bogowie Wojny” (2019) – Michael Morys Twarowski

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Polish team consisting of: Capt. Z. Kawecki / Bambino; Major S. Kulesza / Tośka; rtm. H. Roycewicz-Leliwa / Arlekin III – won the silver medal.
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August 1-16: XI Olympic Games. The Olympic Games in Berlin are breaking records so far: 4,069 participants from 49 countries. The Polish team consists of 112 people. The Olympic torch, brought from Olympia, is burning for the first time as a symbol of ties with ancient tradition. Richard Strauss’s Olympic anthem resounds during the opening ceremony.

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53 riders from 19 countries, including 17 teams of three, register for military. The Polish team is made up of rtm. Henryk Roycewicz on Arlekin III, Zdzisław Kawecki on Bambino and Seweryn Kulesza on Tośka (because Ben Hur suddenly went lame). Roycewicz is 13th after dressage, 15th Kawecki, 26th Kulesza. The team is fifth, with a small point loss, ahead of the dangerous Germans.

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After the cross-country test, G. Rau assessed the Poles’ riding style as follows: „To a large extent, convincing, adapted to the horse’s movement, very flexible. Thanks to this, we are talking about the complete harmony between the rider and the horse, which makes movement and jumping over the obstacle much easier.”

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The event jumping competition in military takes place at the main Olympic stadium with 90,000 spectators. The first of ours is mare Tośka, the least tired of the team. She finishes the course without errors and in good time.

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After the start of Bambino, we move up to the second place and win the silver medal.

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You can find the whole article and other sources at Polish Digital Equestrian Library (click)

Author: Muzeum Łowiectwa i Jeździectwa (Hunting and Horse-Riding Museum) – Hanna Łysakowska

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„Jeźdźcy-Olimpijczycy Drugiej Rzeczypospolitej” [fragmenty] – Renata Urban

„Jeźdźcy olimpijscy” (2000) – Hanna Łysakowska

„Kolekcja medali olimpijskich w zbiorach Muzeum Sportu i Turystyki w Warszawie” (2017) – Zespół redakcyjny

„Seweryn Roman Kulesza – srebrny medalista IO Berlin 1936 r.” – Redakcja portalu olimpijski.pl

„Olympia 1936 tom I”[DE] – Zespół redakcyjny

„Auf Olympischem Parcours”[DE] – Helmut Lenz

„Jeźdźcy-Olimpijczycy Drugiej Rzeczypospolitej” (2012) – Renata Urban

„Polscy jeźdźcy olimpijscy okresu międzywojennego, część I” (2018) – Hanna Łysakowska

„Polscy jeźdźcy olimpijscy okresu międzywojennego, część II” (2019) – Hanna Łysakowska

„Zdzisław Kawecki – Gozdawa – srebrny medalista IO Berlin 1936 r.” – Redakcja portalu olimpijski.pl

„Henryk Leliwa-Roycewicz – srebrny medalista IO Berlin 1936 r.” – Redakcja portalu olimpijski.pl

WKKW – Olimpiada Berlin 1936 (Cross Country) | FILM

„Ostatni udział polskich jeźdźców w olimpiadzie berlińskiej” – Adam Królikiewicz

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On 13 June 1915, 65th Regiment of Dunin-Wąsowicz’s Uhlans got famous for their attack near Rokitna, memorable for all times for Polish arms.
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106th anniversary of the famous attack near Rokitna carried out by 2nd squadron of Uhlans of 2nd Brigade of Polish Legions under command of cavalry captain Zbigniew Dunin-Wasowicz passed.

In the interwar period, this attack was placed next to the greatest successes and exploits of Polish cavalry. Today, principally historians and lovers of Polish cavalry history mind about Rokitna.

The attack became a legend just after its end.

Sacrifice and reckless courage of Polish cavalrymen forcing consecutive lines of Russian trenches had an effect not only on imagination – the blood spilt by cavalry captain Dunin-Wąsowicz’s Uhlans moved everybody, both direct observers of the battle and people knowing its course from press reports.

For Poles, the attack near Rokitna, in spite of losses sustained, became a resurrection of old cavalry traditions after years of foreign rule and a blood sacrifice for the resurgent Motherland.

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Read more… (click to go to Polish Digital Equestrian Library)

Author: Łukasz Koniarek Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich (Ossolineum)

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„W rocznicę szarży pod Rokitną” (2021) – Łukasz Koniarek

„Księga jazdy polskiej” (1938) – Praca zbiorowa

Szarża pod Rokitną” (2012) – Wojciech Grochowalski

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Honorary Patron: Poznańskie Stowarzyszenie Olimpijskie

Sponsor: ..In Pectore

Guardian: Jumping Events Poznań Sports Club

A cavalry captain. 15th Regiment of Uhlans of Poznań. A silver medallist of Olympic Games in Amsterdam 1928 in show jumping on Mylord.

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Born on 08 October 1901 in Rostov-on-Don He died on 25 June 1986 in London.

His father: Aleksander. His mother: Wanda Scipio del Campo from home. A graduate of a grammar school in Smieła, Kiev guberniya, Infantry Cadet School in Warsaw, Cavalry Training Centre in Grudziądz, Central Gymnastics and Sport School in Poznań. N.C.O. of 11th Regiment of Don Uhlans at Voluntary Russian Army, 2nd Dragoon Regiment of cavalry captain Kossak, 3rd Independent Unit of Border Riflemen, 6th Regiment of Mounted Riflemen, 1st Light Cavalrymen Regiment, a second lieutenant of 15th Regiment of Uhlans of Poznań.

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Amsterdam: 17th May – 12th August 1928 – silver medal on Mylord together with Michał Antoniewicz-Woysym on Readgledt and Kazimierz Szosland on Ali. In individual show jumping, he was placed fourth on Mylord.

Before he was the Olympic medallist in 1928, he had been a soldier first.
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Since 1919, the senior rifleman Kazimierz Gzowski fought for Poland at 2nd Dragoon Regiment. Since 06 August 1919, he was a corporal at 6th Regiment of Mounted Riflemen. Since September 1920, he fought as a platoon leader at a squadron of heavy machineguns of 1st Light Cavalrymen Regiment.

Read more… (click to go to Polish Digital Equestrian Library)

Author: Witold Duński

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„Kazimierz Gzowski” (2012) – Witold Duński

„Honorowa Odznaka Jeździecka” (1936) – Redakcja czasopisma Jeździec i Hodowca

„Jeźdźcy polscy na IX Olimpjadzie” (1928) – Leon Kon

„Gzowski Kazimierz Aleksander” – Zespół redakcyjny

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Guardians: Łukasz Koniarek / Ossoliński National Institute

Brigadier general of Polish Army. A heroic defender of Lvov. A commander of 26th Regiment of Uhlans of Great Poland and Cavalry Brigade of Great Poland during the September campaign in 1939. A doctor of laws. Before 1914, a member of National Youth Union (“Z”) and Bartosz Squads.

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Roman Abraham was born on 22 February 1891 in Lvov. He died on 26 August 1976 in Warsaw The general was buried next to his mother at Parish Cemetery in Września.

During the World War I, he was a cavalry officer at Austrian Army. Since November 1918 – at Polish Army; after graduation at French Staff College (1922) – a lecturer of general tactics at the Staff College.

Within the period 1927-39, he was a commander of: 26th Uhlans’ Regiment, Pomeranian Cavalry Brigade and Cavalry Brigade of Great Poland.

In September 1939 he was a commander of the operational group of cavalry at “Poznań” Army and participated the battle on Bzura; then – in German captivity. After his home-coming, retired. An author of historic-military works.

Read more… (click to go to Polish Digital Equestrian Library)

Source: Mała Encyklopedia Wojskowa (Smal Military Encyclopaedia), 1st edition; editor: Jerzy Bordziłowski, Warsaw 1967

Click the links below to go to the Polish Digital Equestrian Library (will open in a new tab):

„Kawaleria w Kampanii Wrześniowej 1939” (1969) – Roman Abraham

„Roman Abraham i Straceńcy ” (2021) – Łukasz Koniarek

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Honorary Patron: Ossoliński National Institute

Sponsor:

Guardian: Jacek Taylor

A second reserve lieutenant of Polish Army (horse-artillery), an emissary of Home Army Headquarters and the Government of Republic of Poland in London, a many years’ director of Polish Broadcasting Station of Free Europe Radio.

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Jan Nowak-Jeziorański (Zdzisław Antoni Jeziorański as a matter of fact) was e legendary courier from the period of the World War II who brought though with secret materials from the occupied Poland to London three times.

After the war, he managed Polish Broadcasting Station of Free Europe Radio with its registered office in Munich for almost a quarter of a century; then he was one of directors of American Polish Colony Congress and a consultant of National Security Council of U.S.A.

He couldn’t go to his motherland for 45 years; he didn’t even know if he can ever see Poland. He was considered as one of the biggest enemies of PRL.

While returning to Poland, he said proudly that their generation had performed their mission. He could leave because Poland had won.

He was born in Berlin on 02 October 1914. At a grammar school in Warsaw, he met Jan Kwiatkowski, a son of the vice-premier and the minister of economy, Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski.

It was him to tempt Zdzisław to study economy in Poznań at Prof. Edward Taylor.

To finance his studies, he had to sell his father’s memorabilia. After graduation, he stayed at the academy to research; he planned to obtain a travelling fellowship. Between 1936 and 1937, he performed military service at the Artillery Reserve Cadet School in Włodzimierz Wołyński. Then he started working on his doctor’s thesis ‘Economic business cycle in Poland 1929-1936’ but its continuation was interrupted by the war.

He partook of the September campaign a a soldier of 2nd Horse-Artillery Unit; he was taken German prisoner but he escaped luckily. (…)

Read more… (click to go to the Polish Digital Equestrian Library)

Author: Mateusz Palka

Ossolineum | Pan Tadeusz Museum | Facebook page – Gabinetów Świadków Historii

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„Jan Nowak-Jeziorański – kurier z Warszawy i Waszyngtonu” (2020) – Mateusz Palka

„Kurier z Warszawy” [fragmenty] (2019) – Jan Nowak Jeziorański

Zwiastun filmu „Kurier” | FILM

„Artyleria konna” (1938) – Karol Koźmiński

„Artylerja konna. Szkic dziejów, organizacji i taktyki” [link] (1917) – Janusz Gąsiorowski

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Guardians: Piotr Jan Woysym-Antoniewicz, Sports and Tourism Museum

A major of Polish Army cavalry, the silver and bronze Olympic medallist in horsemanship.

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He was born in Cracow on 07 July 1897.

He finished a grammar school and a Military Cavalry College. He studied law and administration at Jagielloński University for 6 semesters.

Then he joined up Austrian Army and participated the World War I. He was interned in Hungary; then he fought at Italian battle-front within 1st Regiment of Austrian Uhlans. After war, he returned to Cracow. On 22. 11. 1918, he joined up Polish Army (as 2nd Lt). Since 1.01. 1919, he served at 2nd Rokitniańscy Light Cavalrymen Regiment and participated in battles in Silesia (1921) and Pomerania, took part in Kiev offensive as well as in “marriage ceremony” between Poland and Baltic Sea. 1920).  After war, within the period 1924-29, he trained light cavalrymen and mounted riflemen at Cavalry Training Centre in Grudziądz, and between 1930 and 1934, he was a riding instructor. In 1936, he was appointed as a main horse inspector in Tarnopol.

On 21. 06. 1924, for his perfect riding skills, he was fastened upon a course for the Olympic team in Grudziądz. He started in Olympic Games only in Amsterdam in 1928 where he won two medals: a bronze one in the Team Three Days’ Event (with   K. Rómmel and J. Trenkwald) – they were placed third within 14 starters with their result of 5067. 92 points and a silver medal in the team show jumping competition (with C. Gzowski and K. Szosland) – they were placed second within 14 starters with their result of 8 points). Individually, she was placed 19th in Three Days’ Event (within 46 competitors, with his result of 1822,50 points) and 20th in show jumping (within 46 competitors, with his result of 6 points). He started on Moja Miła (Three Days’ Event) and Readglead (show jumping).

He participated in Nations Cup four times, where he triumphed twice – in New York (1927) and Warsaw (1928).
His sports career was interrupted by his accident during one of trainings (he was bowed down by his horse and the only rescue was an operation to remove his lung). After his long convalescence, he came back to high-performance sports.

In 1939, he fought in the battle-front. Until 1945, he was imprisoned at German camps at Kaiserslautern, Luckenwalde and Ganshagen. After the war, he domiciliated in U.S.A. where he worked as a coach. He married Zofia Brengosz.

He was honoured three times with Cross of Valour for his heroism during battles.

Author: Muzeum Sportu i Turystyki (Sport & Tourism Museum) in Warsaw

Michał Woysym-Antoniewicz died in Austin (Texas) on 1 December 1989, at the age of 92. He was buried 12/12/1989 in Forest Hill Memorial Park Lexington, Davidson County, North Carolina, USA (Grandview 106).

Click the links below to go to the Polish Digital Equestrian Library (will open in a new tab):

„Michał Woysym-Antoniewicz” (2012) – Witold Duński

„W obronie przez nas obranego systemu jazdy konnej” (1932) – Michał Woysym-Antoniewicz, Józef Trenkwald

„Jeźdźcy-Olimpijczycy Drugiej Rzeczypospolitej” fragmenty – Renata Urban

„Od Nicei do Nowego Yorku” (1927) – Adam Królikiewicz

„Sport jeździecki w broniach konnych II Rzeczypospolitej” (1974) – Zygmunt Bielecki

Zdjęcia archiwalne związane z Legendą.

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Guardians: Wanda Gepner-Augustin, Aldona Cholewianka-Kruszyńska

A major of Polish Army cavalry, a museologist, a painter, a drawer, an expert on historic uniforms and armament.

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Born on May 26, 1889 in Nietulisko. He died on November 26, 1965 in Warsaw. He is buried at the Wilanów Cemetery.

Stanisław Gepner of his personal coat of arms was an outstanding expert of historic uniforms, armament and horse carriages.

He was also a painter and a drawer. When he was learning at a secondary school, he started studying painting at Karol Ciszewski; then he attended Kunstgewerbeschule in Vienna; while in Vienna, he also finished a one-year Abiturientenkurs at the Trade Academy in 1913.

Between 1914 and 1917, he was in a Russian Army; between 1918 and 1920, he served in Polish cavalry. Since 1919 – a cavalry captain. Between 1921 and 1929 – at 20th Uhlan Regiment. He was a co-originator of the Army Museum (together with Bronisław Gembarzewski) and its museum-keeper between 1932 and 1946.

During German occupation, he acted in conspiracy under a pseudonym ‘Kostka”; since 1944 he had a rank of major of the Home Army. In the period 1946-1948, he was a museum-keeper of the National Museum (the department in Wilanów); between 1948 and 1950, he was a director of the State Museum in Łańcut.

In addition to his professional work, he dealt with pictorial creativity; his works included, first of all, drawings, watercolours and metalwork wherein he depicted equestrian thematics and that relating historic uniforms. He illustrated also the Polish Army Album by E. Wedel (1934) and the Outline of uniform history in Poland by W. Dziewanowski (1935).

He was a permanent associate of the Military Encyclopaedia issued since 1931. After the World War II, about 100 his scientific and popularizer articles on historic uniforms, armament and horse carriages appeared. The greatest Stanisław Gepner’s work devoted to historic uniforms appeared already posthumously and several dozen years after its elaboration: ‘Polish soldier – clothes, armament and equipment 1832 – 1939’ Wojskowe Centrum Edukacji Obywatelskiej, Warsaw 2014. (…)

Read more… (click to go to Polish Digital Equestrian Library)

Author: Aldona Cholewianka-Kruszyńska, Museum – Castle in Łańcut

Click the links below to go to the Polish Digital Equestrian Library (will open in a new tab):

„Przyjaciele Stanisław Gepner i Andrzej Grzybowski” (2005) – Muzeum Łowiectwa i Jeździectwa

„Żołnierz polski. Ubiór, uzbrojenie i oporządzenie 1832-1939” (2014) – Stanisław Gepner

„Stanisław Gepner” (2020) – Aldona Cholewianka-Kruszyńska

„Sztandary jazdy polskiej” (1938) – Stanisław Gepner

„Rotmistrz Stanisław Gepner” (1987) – Stanisław Ledóchowski

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31/08/1920, a centenary of the ‘Miracle on the Vistula river’.
1st Mounted Army of S. Budionny was stopped under the strategic Zamość and blown apart.

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The battle under Komarów started on 31 August 1920 with Gen. Stanisław Haller’s command addressed to the commander of 1st DJ, colonel Juliusz Rómmel; the command pointed out the action direction towards Cześniki. Over there, the forces of 1st Mounted Army (withdrawn from under Zamość) were located. Budionny’s staff was stationed in Niewirków.

Polish cavalry victory under Komarów was a result of the battle carried out splendidly in respect of tactics. Polish officers’ corps merited the very high mark. This concerns especially manoeuvres at a battlefield. Co-operation between the division staff and its brigades was on the very high level. Mobility and team-work of individual troops resulted from their experience acquired in battles of the war in 1920. Commanders of different levels promoted initiatives of their subordinates depending on situation at a battle-field. The above in combination with co-operation and synchronization of actions of individual combat arms, i.e., a cavalry attack and heavy machine-guns (machine-gun carriages) and artillery fire allowed success in spite of the enemy superiority in number.

Read more… (click to go to the Polish Digital Equestrian Library)

Author: Piotr Kurowski

source: „Bitwa zamojska 1920” (2018) – Piotr Kurowski, Bellona Publishing House

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„Bitwa zamojska 1920” [fragmenty] – Piotr Krukowski

„Bitwa Warszawska w Muzeum – Zamek w Łańcucie” [link] – Aldona Cholewianka-Kruszyńska