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A Great Lithuanian Hetman. One of the most outstanding European army commanders within early seventeenth century.

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When he discomfited Swedes near Kircholm in 1605, he received congratuliations from the emperor Rudolf II, the king of England Jakub I, and even the shah of Persia. The Ottoman sultan and Tuscan dukes had his portraits at their palaces. The pope Paul V wrote to the victor: “You proved to be the most glorious and the wisest commander absolutely”.

He gained the eternal glory during his battles with Swedes in Livonia. Kircholm, where the hetman defeated three times more numerous enemy’s army, entered the pantheon of Polish greatest triumphs. You can find it also in the list of battles immortalised at the Unknown Soldier Grave in Warsaw.

Importance of Polish Hussars in this battle is reasonably emphasized but it was not conclusive in the least. Jan Karol Chodkiewich’s genius decided substantially on the conflict result.

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You can find the whole article and other sources at Polish Digital Equestrian Library (click)

Author: Michael Morys Twarowski

Click the following links to go to related materials in Polish Digital Equestrian Library (they will open in a new page):

„Wodzowie Polski – Jan Karol Chodkiewicz” (1938) – Edmund Oppman

„Jan Karol Chodkiewicz – Polscy Bogowie Wojny” (2019) – Michael Morys Twarowski

Chocim 1621 | FILM

„Chocim 1621” (1988) – Leszek Podhorodecki