Honorary Patrons: Dorota Janiszewska,
Agnieszka Rozwadowska

Sponsors: Michałów Stud, Monika Słowik

Guardians: Urszula and Jerzy Białobok

A great madcap of breeding, the breeder with a vision, a talent and an intuition of future. He was an initiator of Michałów Stud Farm’s successes.


Ignacy Jaworowski was born on January 14, 1924 in Wrońska in the Płońsk district in Mazovia.

Ignacy Jaworowski is connected permanently with the post-war history of reconstruction of the pure-bred Arabian breeding in Poland and its splendid development within the past sixty years. He dedicated almost all his life to Arabian horses. Jaworowski died on18 September 2004 aged 80, whereout 49 years worked at breeding. A half of century is the long period and withal, he lived in very hard times that often were better for horses than for the people directing their breeding.

Ignacy Jaworowski was born on 14 January 1924 in Wrońska, district Płońsk, Mazovia, in the gentry. His father, grandfather and uncle bred Anglo-Arabian horses and they taught him the breeding.

At present, the Arabian Stud Farm – Polska AKF sp. z o.o. is located at Jaworowski family property, i.e. in Wrońska. Now, Wrońska belongs to the sheik Khaled Bin of Sultan Bin Abdul Aziz from Saudi Arabia. There are 20 mares in the stable and there is a plaque on the building to inform that Ignacy Jaworowski, the creator of the stud farm of Michałów, was born in Wrońska.

Ignacy Jaworowski obtained the secondary-school certificate during occupation (it was the secret teaching) in Warsaw; then he finished the military college (it was also the secret school) and he learnt at the agricultural-horticultural school at the same time. The further education was interrupted by outbreak of Warsaw Uprising in which he took part, of course. He was the soldier of Kiliński Battalion of 1st Regiment of Mounted Riflemen, Zagrobla brigade of Home Army. He fought mainly at the Down Town; also, he took part in defence of Hala Mirowska. At the end of the Uprising, seriously ill Jaworowski got to the camp in Pruszków from where he was took out to the area near Tarnów.

For his participation in Warsaw Uprising and Home Army operations, he received Polish Cross of Valour (1989), Warsaw Uprising Cross.(1989), Polish Partisan Cross (1999), the Home Army Cross (1999). He spoke of his partisan experience very rarely. In communist times, he didn’t admitted this for understandable reasons to avoid arrest or another possible repressions; after collapse of Communism, he also didn’t boast of this as he felt that fight with enemy was each Pole’s patriotic duty.

While in the agricultural school, Jaworowski performed his first practices in Dańków, at Mr and Mrs Wolski, at Janasz’s company (dealing mainly with corn growing, established in 1880 by Aleksander Janasz at Dańków, district Grójec, acting under the name “Winter crops growing Aleksander Janasz and Sons, Dańków”; after World War II, Dańków was nationalized and within 1945-1950, it was rented by the firm “Winter crops and sugar beet growing A. Janasz” that came under state management in 1950 and was nationalized in 1958 as Dańkowska Hodowla Roślin [Plant Breeding of Dańków]) dealing with corn growing; within the last year, he perfomed a function of a plantation inspector.

After liberation, he was admitted to the Agricultural Faculty of Main School of Farming. He graduated in 1948 while obtaining the degree of MSc Eng., with the speciality of horse breeding. Else, within his studies, he performed the apprenticeship at Racot Stud Farm (Great Poland). Lang syne, it was the very well led national stud farm known of the great discipline and the “stud farm drill”. They had excellent half-bred mares. Already then, Ignacy Jaworowski was considered as the promising future breeder and after graduation, he was offered a position of an asistnt at Racot Stud Farm. He worked there for two years (1948-1950) and gained so valuable experience in breeding as well as in growing plants necessary as the fodder for the stock.

In April 1950, he was transferred to the position of a deputy manger of the stud farm of Janów; he was responsible for half-bred horses. This stud farm, after revindication from Germany, was located temporarily in Posadowo, relatively close to Racot. Over there, he met Andrzej Krzyształowicz, the manager of the stud farm of Janów, for the first time.

For veterinary reasons, mares must not be mated naturally and insemination was used. Ignacy Jaworowski delivered the fresh sperm to granges where mares were located. 30 years later, insemination were used also in Michałów in order to use the lent out stallions in the best possible way.

He didn’t stay in Posadowo for long because already in November of this year, he was transferred again, this time to the partly reconstructed Janów Podlaski to the position of a deputy manager and later a manager of the stud farm. Everything indicated that he would stay longer in Janów Podlaski where he felt fine among young colleagues. At that time, the national stud farms belonged to Central Management of Horse Breeding; this structure functioned within Ministry of Agriculture. Personal decisions were made at the central level. Horses were of priority importance due to the great demand for labour in the agriculture (there were no tractors), production of stallions and refinement of the livestock population. Jaworowski many times made mention on situation when he planned to spend Christmas with his family in Wrocław in 1951 but, due to the next official transfer, this time to Klemensów-Michałów, he had to occur at the stud farm already on 18th December to start his work with pure-bred Arabian mares located there.

After war, according to the project of the inspector of this breeding, Dr Edward Skorkowski, the pure-bred Arabians were located in the south of Poland, in three facilities: the mares of kuhailan type were placed in Albigowa and Nowy Dwór and mares of saklawi type and all chestnut mares – in Klemensów-Michałów. These three stud farms accepted mainly the mares from the stud farm of Janów, that stayed then temporarily (until 1948) in Posadowo as well as the private breeders’ mares found in the country and the mares from the stud farm Babolna (Hungary).

Klemensów-Michałów originated on the basis of the former Zamoyscy estate. In 1946, it included the granges Michałów, Góry, Bodaczów, Klemensów-Park and Deszkowice, about 800 ha in total. At first, English Thoroughbred, English part-bred and part-bred Anglo-Arabian mares were gathered herein; then, they were transferred to the stud farm Widzów and the stud farm Kozienice in 1948. In place of them, 19 Arabian mares together with youngsters and the stallions from Posadowo, Amurath Sahib and Miecznik, arrived. The stud farm managers were in turn Jan Pszczółkowski, Romuald Wincza and Józef Młodecki. Ignacy Jaworowski took over the stud farm in 1951. He devoted the first two years to selection, removal of weak material and then, including the young mares to the pack of dams that grew up to 22 heads.

In spite of selection, the pack of mares in Klemensów was differentiated very much as regards type and beauty that is spotlighted especially today. Director Jaworowski deplored in his stories the fact that the fast improvement was hindered by the idea that it is necessary to consolidate the “utilitarian Arab” that is a strong, more massive horse suitable to refinement and production of farm-horses. The following idea was forced: the “luxury horses”, i.e. the pure-bred Arabians according to communist authorities, should be transformed into utilitarian horses or this breeding should be liquidated as useless for the system of that time. Such a negative example was use of the stallions Rozmaryn and Grand that were big, coarse, bony horses without beauty and Arabian type. However, while looking at this with hindsight, maybe it was the only way to save the parent-pack of mares. Only the first exports in the sixties opened a new era in Arabian horses breeding. But before it occurred, the Arabian pack from Klemensów had to change its location.

The breeding authorities of that time found that the natural environment at the Zamość region is too rich for Arabian horses. The loesses of classes I and II with pastures in Wieprz river valley created adverse conditions for the youth health. There were fears that Arabian horses would lose their dryness and their tissue and joints would become more wet; a poorer environment is necessary for their correct form, with less amount of precipitations. Michałów near Pińczów in Świętokrzyskie voivodship was chosen where a new director, Jaworowski, appeared on 15 August 1953 and then in October – 22 mares and the stallions Doktryner and Rozmaryn. Ponidzie region had good traditions in breeding of noble horses and horses for the army in the interwar period. Michałów was the grange belonging to Góry property where the residence of its last owner, Antoni Dembiński, was located. The environment of Michałów was considered as more favourable for Arabian horse breeding. This region is characterized by the less amount of precipitations, poorer pastures, longer growing season, and high content of minerals in the limestone soil is better for the issue dryness and wholesomeness of Arabians; thus, the local conditions are more favourable than in the previous Klemesów.

Jaworowski left Klemensów regretfully due to the developed stables. The breeding of English Thoroughbreds.and half-bred horses was at that place before the war, as well as the stockyards. This was the place with horse breeding tradition, the great park of 100 ha, the palace and the staff prepared to work with horses. As he himself wrote in his memories: “transfer of the stud farm from the already developed facility with the breeding traditions to a completely rough place without tradition, without rooms, stables, a suitable hinterland, pastures and especially without people created huge obstruction in the stud farm organization. The human relations caused the most concerns and troubles. The locals, often chance employees at Michałów, sometimes completely rough people as regards horse care and grooming, required to be taught the sense of duty and, first of all, discipline. The elements dissatisfied with introduction of order and discipline gained the ear of committees of Polish United Workers’ Party and related institutions that caused unfavourable atmosphere towards the non-party manager of the stud farm. Among others, I was imprisoned (fortunately, for not so long period) due to the resolution of the executive of Polish United Workers’ Party to remove me from this area, and there were various persecutions. While looking at this with hindsight after many years of work, I see how many difficulties and obstacles I had to overcome for the sake of welfare and development of the pure-bred Arabian breeding. My wife Maria always supported me bravely in these hard times and I could count on kindness and help of my superiors at the Horse Breeding Department and in particular of the chiefs: Stanisław Szuch, Bolesław Orłoś and Marek Piotrowski and the directors: Stanisław Staniszewski and Paweł Warchoł” (I. Jaworowski’s notes on the history of the Stud Farm Michałów; the Stud Farm Archive).

How you can see from Ignacy Jaworowski’s memories, it was not so easy at the beginning in Michałów. Jaworowski, born as a landed proprietor, non-party, going to church, trying to maintain discipline and persecuting thefts was an “enemy of the commons” dreamt-of by the post-war communist authorities, so they tried to ruin him. Only the steadfast character hard-bitten by Warsaw Uprising, with thorough knowledge and practice, could defend himself and this succeeded for good luck and glory of Michałów.

Once the pack of mares arrived, the young manager had to perform the difficult tasks: preparation of pastures for horses, erection of new stables and repair of old buildings but he had already some practice as he started similarly at the stud farms in Janów and Klemensów. There was only the old stable for farmhorses where dams and stallions were located. The new stable nr 1-2 was under construction. Fillies were located at the grange Nieprowice where very good natural pastures were on the Nida river and the cowshed was adapted as the stable. Colts were located at the grange Podlesie near Michałów where they stay to this day.

Unfortunately, the original location failed since after two years, in 1955, the grange Nieprowice was transferred to a collective farm. This was the decision made by agriculture minister Stanisław Radkiewicz, the former minister of public security, on application of the provincial and the district committees of Polish United Workers’ Party. The stud farm management defended the stud farm bravely and this, unfortunately, resulted in loss of office by Franciszek Mieszkowski, the director of Michałów of that time. Thus, the young manager had to locate the all livestock population at one place. He managed to take over a farm in Lubcza and lease meadows at Pińczów on Nida river. The period 1955-1959, after director Mieszkowski’s leaving, was characterized by the organizational flux and changes of directors; in turn, there were four directors, starting from a taxi-driver by profession and ending on a joiner. Stabilization occurred from 15 August 1959 when Ignacy Jaworowski was appointed as a director and performed this function for 44 years.

Today’s Michałów having 670 hectares of land is the very well developed place for horses and a herd of cows. And though at the beginning there was only one tumbledown farmhorse stable, then six stables were build of Pińczów stone in the very nice architectural style, with comfortable loose-boxes and run-stables for 120 mares with foals, yearlings and two-year-olds. The following facilities arose: paddocks in front of stables, with running tracks, permanent metal fences around pastures of 100 hectares with 23 pasture-beds, a separate rearing area for colts at Podlesie, with a stable and special facilities. In the later years, a training hall was built with 60 loose-boxes and the stallion sperm freezing centre as well as a new cowshed at Lubcza farm.

In 1985, Jersey cows were brought to Michałów. Then, in-calf heifers of this breed were imported from Denmark twice more; they were chosen by Jaworowski himself. Now, they have a herd of 130 cows that used to win the Championship of Poland every year within the last 10 years. The average performance is very high, i.e. 7 thousand litres from a cow.

From among 22 mares that arrived at the beginning, the pack of Michałów developed up to 120, i.e. it increased six times. The pack reached the highest worldwide level of pure-bred Arabian breeding. The mares belong to 11 female families.

The family of the mare Milordka (born about 1810 in Sławuta) is the most deserved.

The second monumental mare is Estebna by Nabór, the model Arabian mare, the first Europe champion from Verden in 1973. This was the first trip of Arabian horses from Poland after World War II and then the horses of Michałów knocked the competition from Europe; as it turned out later, the horses From Michałów many times won with these from Europe and Janów Podlaski, too. It was a great experience for Ignacy Jaworowski and confirmation of rightness of his breeding method.

The Arabian horses, besides courage and correct exterior, must be good-looking, charismatic, eye-catching and moving excellently. The beauty and bouquet are marked in the strongest way in the trot. Ignacy Jaworowski stuck this motto until the end of his professional work and tried to transfer the breeding rules used by him to all of us. Estebna appeared also a brave dam; her daughter Elkana won a title of Champion of USA next year.

Many Champions of Europe descend from this family, namely the mares: Emigrantka by Eukaliptus, Esklawa by Celebes, Emilda by Pamir, as well as Champions of Poland, i.e. the mares: Elewka, Elgina, Emanacja, Estarda, Ekstaza, Emisja and Egzotyka. This family delivered also superb stallions, i.e.: Eufrat, Ekstern – multi- champion in Europe, Aramis, Eldon and Emanor.

Family of Szwejkowska from Sławuta (1800) is one of the oldest in Poland. Here, the most outstanding is Warmia by Comet, with a group of splendid daughters, i.e. Wizja – Champion of USA, Wilejka – the dam of the frontal stallion Wojsław and two other sons, Woroblin and Wermut.

The family of Ukrainka (born 1815, in Sławuta) is the female line well-known of their racing abilities. The mare Forta comes from this line (together with her youngsters) and her grandson Fawor, the excellent leading sire, Champion of Poland and World Champion from Paris, leased to USA for 1 million dollars.

The family of Gazella or. ar., imported to Jarczowce in 1845; its representatives are splendid mares Gizela, Gaskonia, Premia, Premiera, Kabała, Mitra – the champions or vice-champions of Poland, Kawalkada – the Champion of USA and the most deserved Kwestura – the multi-champion of Europe, the World Champion and the Champion of USA, sold for the highest price in the post-war history, i.e. for 1 million 125 thousand € in 2008.

The remaining families are fewer but with the outstanding representatives as Zazula – the Champion of Europe, Zagrobla – the Champion of USA and the World Champion, Planeta, the dam of Pohaniec sold to Sweden; he was the sire of Probat, leased to Michałów where he gave the splendid batch of mares and stallions. From among the lines of Babolna, the following mares are red-lettered: Darda – dam of Dardir sold to Sweden, the later World Champion and the very much deserved for Scandinavia and Domaba – the Champion of USA; and Dewiza, the granddaughter of Darda and the dam of Diana sold at the auction Polish Ovation for 1,200 thousand dollars. We could still mention to infinity but numbers speak at the very most. When Ignacy Jaworowski was a director, the Arabians of Michłów won as follows: 53 titles of the national champion; 9 titles of Nations’ Cup Champion in Aix-la-Chapelle; 13 titles of the Champion of Europe; 6 titles of the World Champion; 8 titles of the Champion of USA and 90 titles of the runner-up.

His achievements are very numerous and there was no other breeder in Poland nor in the world who reached so many.

Ignacy Jaworowski’s firm conviction that in breeding it is necessary to use the stallions transferring their beauty to their lineage was a base of our horses breeding successes. Such stallions were as follows: Negatiw and his son Nabór that created the first grey-silver pack of dams of Michałów on the good basis of daughters of Amurath Sahib and Gwarny.

The stallions Eukaliptus belonging to the same foundation stock and Gadir leased from Germany proved correct very well at Michałów. Eukaliptus (bred in Janów) was discovered for breeding by Ignacy Jaworowski; he opposed the sale of the stallion and agreed only for his lease to USA whereby he came back to Michałów.

Imported stallions were used for admixture of new blood, among others Palas with Egyptian pedigree and also the above-mentioned Probat, the continuator of Comet’s line. Both of them gave very pretty daughters and quite good sons. However, the epochal stallion for Michałów was Monogramm (Negatraz – Monogramma) born in USA at the stud farm Patterson Arabians, Bask’s grandson that gave excellent daughters that won Young Stock Shows placed between 1 and 5 and two perfect sons: Ganges – the Champion of Poland and the vice-champion of USA and the above-quoted Ekstern..

I think that discovery of Monogramm was Ignacy Jaworowski’s greatest success in his search of the dreamt-of stallion.

Besides the Arabians breeding, the preservation breeding of leopard colour horses was led in Michałów; they were saved by Jaworowski to avoid their disappearance and oblivion in Poland. He bought the last two stallions from a circus and PSO Bogusławice and reconstructed this colour based on a Little-Poland horse, in co-operation with local farmers. Today, we have a couple of mares and multi-horse teams performing at various times and in costume films. The similar situation was with breeding of ponies of Shetland type, with preference of undersize. Jaworowski liked little ponies very much and he was the first who bred them in post-war Poland on a larger scale. He kept also pigeons and poultry. They were the colourful touch around the house where he lived.

For his merits, the director received many decorations and distinctions, namely, the American breeders awarded him a title of the best foreign breeder of pure-bred Arabians, so called Breeding Oscar in 1991. He received also the Silver Cross of Merit in 1964, the Gold Cross of Merit in 1974, the decoration Deserved Agriculture Employee in 1982, the Order of Polonia Restituta Fifth Class, the Knight’s Cross in 1984, the Order of Polonia Restituta Fourth Class, the Officer’s Cross in 1997 and the Order of Polonia Restituta Second Class, the Commander’s Cross with Star in 2000.

At the end of his life, Ignacy Jaworowski received one more, very important distinction for the breeder practitioner, namely he was graduated as a doctor honoris causa of Hugon Kołłątaj Agriculture Academy in Cracow. The ceremony was celebrated on 14 May 2004 at the Stud Farm Michałów. The participants were as follows: the representatives of the Senate and the Council of Animal Breeding and Biology Faculty of Agriculture Academy in Cracow, the representatives of other Agriculture Academies in Poland, the regional authorities as well as the guests and the friends from national and private stud farms, in great number. In conclusion, I will quote a fragment of the laudation delivered by prof. dr. Marian Tischner: “The results reached by the horses bear testimony on the proper breeding way traced by director Ignacy Jaworowski for the Stud Farm Michałów. Such a great success was not reached yet by any breeding worldwide. Conferment of the highest academic distinction, i.e. the honorary doctorate to Ignacy Jaworowski M. Sc. Eng., the many years’ director, is the great superlative for his outstanding achievements in animal breeding and also the acknowledgement for his many years’ co-operation and help in education of students and young scientific workers of our Academy. This is also the superlative to Polish breeders that saved the Polish breeding of pure-bred Arabian horses in the post-war reality and despite the losses sustained, and the superlative to the whole team that worked and still works at the Stud Farm Michałów”.

Ignacy Jaworowski received the very high state and scientific decorations for his outstanding achievements. He worked hard all his life, stood for the motherland, started his professional career several times, did not belong to any party ever, was honest and fair. He was a great madcap of breeding, the breeder with a vision, a talent and an intuition of future; sometimes, he was hard in the daily life but the people forgive this in case of the outstanding person.

He always impressed me because he acknowledged his breeding faults and corrected them quickly, since the breeding teaches humility and I think that these features helped to build such a great stud farm within such a short time.

Read more … (click to go to the Polish Digital Equestrian Library)

Author: Jerzy Białobok

You can find links below to related materials in Polish Digital Equestrian Library.

Ignacy Jaworowski died in Michałów on September 18, 2004, at the age of 80.

He was buried in the parish cemetery in Michałów (a characteristic grave at the end of the cemetery, made of the same stone as the Michałów stables).

Polish Digital Equestrian Library:

Click the following links to go to related materials in Polish Digital Equestrian Library (they will open in a new page):

„Fotograficzny esej na nadchodzące 70-lecie Stadniny Koni Michałów” (2022) – Mariusz Wideryński

„Ignacy Jaworowski” (2014) – Jerzy Białobok

„Odszedł wielki hodowca” (2004) – Urszula Białobok, Jerzy Białobok

„Stadnina Koni Michałów” [EN]

„Stadnina Koni Michałów” – zespół redakcyjny